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Encyclopedia of stainless steel

Anti-corrosion steelsare chromium alloys with iron, containing 12-30% chromium, up to 30% nickel or up to 24% manganese with a certain amount of molybdenum, silicon, copper, titanium, niobium, nitrogen and the like (a few percent at most). Chromium ensures the passivity of these alloys and is therefore a decisive element for achieving corrosion resistance. Stainless steels are prone to local types of corrosion (pitting, crevice, intergranular, corrosion cracking) in some environments. However, these can be excluded by the appropriate selection of steel for the given conditions. Even though chromium, nickel, manganese and other alloying elements are in relatively large quantities in stainless steels, the basic element is still iron and its alloy with carbon, i.e. steel. We divide stainless steels according to their chemical composition and structure into the following basic groups:

• austenitic,

• ferritic,

• martensitic (hardenable),

• austenitic – ferritic (duplex),

• superalloys.



They have the highest corrosion resistance of all basic classes, which can be further increased by adding molybdenum and copper. An important feature is ductility and toughness. In order to obtain different properties, the basic composition is modified by adding other elements with the aim of increasing: • overall corrosion resistance (chromium, molybdenum, copper, silicon, nickel) • quality of mechanical properties (nitrogen) • machinability (sulfur, selenium, phosphorus, lead, copper ) • resistance to cracking of welds (manganese) • resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion (molybdenum, silicon, nitrogen) • resistance to corrosion cracking (restriction of phosphorus, arsenic, antimony content) • creep strength (molybdenum, titanium, niobium, boron) • refractories (chrome, aluminum, silicon, nickel)



They are magnetic and sufficiently stretchable. The higher chromium content increases their corrosion resistance, which in oxidizing environments is higher than that of martensitic steels. They are used in the chemical industry, in nitric acid environments, in transport, air conditioning, architecture. However, they are not suitable in some industrial atmospheres. They are unsuitable in welded constructions.



Corrosion resistance is low. They can find use in contact with nitric acid, boric acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid, oleic acid, picric acid, with carbonates, with nitrates and with alkalis. However, their resistance decreases with increasing temperature. Resistance to atmospheric corrosion is sufficient only in very clean air.



They are derived from classic austenitic steels, thanks to the high content of chromium and molybdenum they have excellent resistance to cracks and corrosion. The duplex microstructure provides high resistance in the quarry against corrosion under pressure, stress corrosion and erosion. The weldability of duplex steels is good. SUPER ALLOYS Nickel metal alloys developed for work at high operating temperatures, with high resistance to mechanical stress, with high corrosion resistance and with a low coefficient of expansion.



AISI 301Anti-corrosion flexible material used in the temperature range up to 300 °C. Application: high strength material, suitable for automotive industry, springs, spring tools.

AISI 303Austenitic chrome-nickel steel, very machinable, alloyed with sulphur, which allows processing on automatic machines. Deteriorated mechanical properties and reduced resistance to corrosion (higher sulfur content), but the values are better than for the material

AISI 430 F, correspond to AISI 430 material. Material unsuitable for cold working and welding (flows during welding). This grade is only available in bars. Application: Suitable for the production of nuts, screws, fittings, for the production of rotary parts, machined on automatic machines, if better corrosion resistance than AISI 430 is required.

AISI 304Austenitic chromium nickel steel isthe most widely used type of anti-corrosion materialwith very good corrosion resistance, cold formability and weldability. Resistant to water, water vapor, air humidity, edible acids, weak organic and inorganic acids. After welding sheet metal up to a thickness of 6 mm, it is resistant to intercrystalline corrosion even without additional heat treatment (low carbon content). Approved for temperature stress up to 300°C, titanium stabilized steel should be used at higher working temperatures.

AISI 321.Well polishable and malleable by deep drawing, folding and rounding. During machining, it is necessary to work with sharp tools made of high-alloy high-speed steel, carbide or carbide alloys due to the tendency to solidification. Arc weldability when using all welding methods is good, not suitable for flame welding. Application: In the engineering and nuclear industry, in architecture, in transport equipment, in the food industry, in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, in the construction of chemical apparatus and motor vehicles, in the production of surgical instruments, sanitary equipment, objects and devices for the household and objects of art.

AISI 304LAustenitic, chromium-nickel steel with increased resistance to intercrystalline corrosion (extremely low carbon content). Sheets over 6 mm thick, even if they were welded under less favorable conditions, do not need to be additionally modified. The material is weldable, very well polished and well cold formable. Machining conditions are similar to AISI 304. Use: similar to AISI 304, but cold processing is better.

AISI 304 PS/DDQAnti-corrosion material suitable for deep drawing. Special malleable properties are achieved by easy modification in the chemical composition and heat treatment in the rolling phase. Use: dishes, sinks, sinks.

AISI 309/310Heat-resistant stainless steel materials with a high content of chromium and nickel. Application: refractory devices with temperatures up to 1150 °C.

AISI 316Austenitic acid-resistant chromium nickel molybdenum steel with increased corrosion resistance (increased molybdenum content). After welding sheet metal up to a thickness of 6 mm, it is resistant to intercrystalline corrosion even without additional heat treatment (low carbon content). It is approved for temperature stress up to 300 °C. The material is weldable, very well polished and can be machined by deep drawing, bending and rounding. Machining conditions are similar to AISI 304. Application: Wherever structural parts, devices and tools with the required medium strength are exposed to the action of water, water vapor and air humidity, in the engineering industry, in the construction of turbines, pumps, in the production of fittings, household items and devices, sports equipment, medical and surgical devices, etc.

AISI 316LAustenitic acid-resistant chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel, with a carbon content of up to 0.03%, highly resistant to acids and corrosion, with a slight tendency to pitting in solutions containing chlorine. The steel is very well weldable, without the need for additional heat treatment after welding, with high resistance to intercrystalline corrosion, can be polished to a mirror shine and is extremely malleable (bending, circling, deep drawing, pressing, etc.). Use: Structural parts, devices and apparatus of the chemical industry with high chemical stress (presence of chlorides), in the production of hot water treatment equipment and structural parts that come into contact with seawater.

AISI 316TiAustenitic acid-resistant chrome nickel molybdenum steel, stabilized with titanium additive. Higher acid resistance, higher yield strength and strength, no risk of deep local corrosion (molybdenum additive). After welding thicker dimensions, no heat treatment (stabilization with titanium) is necessary. It is not possible to achieve a high gloss (titanium additive). Formability by deep drawing, folding and rounding is good. Machining conditions are similar to AISI 304. Arc weldability when using all welding methods is good. Flame welding is not possible. Use: Structural parts, devices and apparatus of the chemical industry with the required resistance to halogens and non-oxidizing acids. A higher yield strength in tension brings advantages in mechanically more stressed constructions (construction). Typical examples of use are technologies for the production of pulp, viscose yarn, textiles, dyes, fertilizers, plastics and fuels, the photographic and pharmaceutical industries, and the petroleum industry.

AISI 321Austenitic chrome-nickel steel, stabilized with titanium additive, after welding, resistant to intercrystalline corrosion without additional heat treatment, even when welding thicker dimensions. It can be used for pressure vessels up to a temperature of 400 °C, as a scale-resistant steel it can be used up to 800 °C. The addition of titanium does not allow the steel to be polished to a high shine. Formability by deep drawing, folding and rounding is good. Machining conditions are similar to AISI 304. Arc weldability is good when using all welding methods. Flame welding is not possible. Use: Chemical resistance similar to AISI 304 material, similar possibility of use if high gloss is not required. Suitable for structures with material thickness greater than 6 mm, which cannot be heat treated after welding. A higher yield strength in tension brings benefits for mechanically more stressed devices, structural parts and connecting elements. It is used in all branches of the food and chemical industry.

AISI 409Similar to AISI 430 material with titanium additive, more resistant to aggressive environment. Use: Inserts for chimneys.

AISI 410, 420, 420FAnti-corrosion material, hardenable with increasing carbon content, higher hardness can be achieved after hardening. Application: for components with higher strength, springs, pistons, screws and knives.

AISI 430Ferritic 17% chrome steel with good corrosion resistance, very good polishability, deep elongation and bendability. When welding at temperatures below 20 °C, it tends to become brittle. The machinability is comparable to alloy case-hardened steels. As with other soft materials, it is necessary to take into account poorer chip evacuation. For sheet thicknesses above 3 mm, cold forming is improved if the material and the tool are heated to 100-300 °C. Even if the material is weldable, embrittlement and a reduction in corrosion resistance appear in the weld area. Application: Very diverse, thanks to its resistance to water, water vapor and humidity, weak acids and alcohols, suitable for the production of household electrical appliances, in the hospitality industry, in the production of food and beverages, in architecture, in the production of furniture, in medical technology, in the chemical industry, etc. . It is characterized by relatively good resistance to corrosion and good workability.

AISI 430 FRefineable stainless automatic steel, with 17% chromium content and molybdenum additive, alloyed with sulfur (improvement of machinability), unsuitable for cold processing and welding. Reduced resistance to corrosion and ductility (high sulfur content). Application: for the production of rotating parts on machines without increased requirements for corrosion resistance.

AISI 439 – 441Ferritic chrome steel with a Cr content of 16-18% and stabilizing elements of Ti or Nb. Improved features compared to A430. Good weldability and machinability. Higher corrosion resistance. Use: application as material A430. In some applications, a replacement for A304 (design, furniture sector...).

AISI 904LSuper-austenitic steel got its name from its high resistance to corrosion in a very aggressive environment. Material with low carbon content, high content of molybdenum (4.5-5%) and chromium (20-21%), excellent resistance to interstitial corrosion even in the presence of chlorine. Copper 1.2-1.8% and Ni 25% guarantee good resistance to stress corrosion. Use: in the paper, chemical industry, production of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, production of fertilizers.

DuplexAustenitic-ferritic steel - referred to by the common name Duplex, due to the coexistence of two phases: an austenitic-type phase and a ferritic-type phase, their chromium content varies between 18-26% and nickel 4.5-6.5%. Microcrystalline austenitic-ferritic structure that gives the material high resistance to pitting. Applications: heat exchangers, tanks and containers for liquids with a high chlorine content, desalination tanks, seawater cooling equipment, PVC production, fertilizers, acid tanks, offshore oil and gas industry.

Nickel superalloysBased on an austenitic structure, which represents a better distribution of atoms capable of guaranteeing high mechanical resistance even at high fractions of the casting temperature. Alloys of this type maintain a high surface physico-chemical stability, excellent resistance to corrosion and a long service life. Application: aviation, cosmonautics, nuclear, thermal energy, chemical equipment, petrochemical equipment, shipping industry.


Mechanical properties


Composition of materials

Složení nerez materiálů

Types of sheets

Druhy plechů

Types of tubes

Kotva 1
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